There are some languages which have very long words. Mostly, this has to do with the morphological characteristics of that particular language. The words are formed differently in languages and they change form language to language. Some languages tend to form their words without many endings while the others do it with multiple endings and many compound words. Technically, the languages which have words where each stands for its own without endings are called analytic or isolating languages. Chinese would be a good example where each character represents a syllable. The other languages which use many endings to form their words are called synthetic languages. Good example for these can be Turkish, Finnish, etc. For example, English is rather an isolating language (even though it is not as much as Chinese), where sentences are formed with single elements such as auxiliaries, with a few affixes than multiple endings. So those synthetic languages tend to form longer words than the analytic languages, because this is how synthetic languages work. Below, you can watch the video about the longest words in different languages.
In the video there are languages like Turkish, Hungarian and Finnish. These languages use many endings to form their words. This is the reason why they have such long words. On the other hand, some Germanic languages like Dutch, Afrikaans, Icelandic and German also form long words but they rather do it through compounding. Compounds are joint nouns which stand in the form of a single word. Our number one in the top 10 is Sanskrit. Unfortunately, it is an extinct language. However, back in the days, it used to be spoken in the northern parts of India. This language linguistically has some importance. Sanskrit was excepted as some sort of bridge between European languages and old Indian root languages, making it a great base for Indo-European language theory. For this reason, in Sanskrit there are many similar words to common English words. So, even though all those long words might seem scary, you should not worry. They are not really frequently used and as learner you will not need them probably. This video gives just some facts :)
Hi there. I am Yasin Tokat. I am student of linguistics and a speaker of 4 languages (including my own native). Here I share my knowledge and own learning experiences with you.